Themes and Styles

To customize the appearance of tables, modelsummary supports five of the most popular table-making packages:

  1. tinytable: https://vincentarelbundock.github.io/tinytable/
  2. gt: https://gt.rstudio.com
  3. kableExtra: http://haozhu233.github.io/kableExtra
  4. huxtable: https://hughjonesd.github.io/huxtable/
  5. flextable: https://davidgohel.github.io/flextable/
  6. DT: https://rstudio.github.io/DT

Users are encouraged to visit these websites to determine which package suits their needs best.

To create customized tables, we proceed as follows:

  1. Call a modelsummary function like datasummary().
  2. Use the output argument to specify the package to be used for customization, such as output="tinytable" or output="gt".
  3. Apply a function from the package in question to the object created by modelsummary.

To illustrate, we download data from the Rdatasets repository and we estimate 5 models:

library(modelsummary)

url <- "https://vincentarelbundock.github.io/Rdatasets/csv/HistData/Guerry.csv"
dat <- read.csv(url, na.strings = "")

models <- list(
    I = lm(Donations ~ Literacy, data = dat),
    II = lm(Crime_pers ~ Literacy, data = dat),
    III = lm(Crime_prop ~ Literacy + Clergy, data = dat),
    IV = glm(Crime_pers ~ Literacy + Clergy, family = poisson, data = dat),
    V = glm(Donations ~ Literacy + Clergy, family = poisson, data = dat)
)

In the rest of this vignette, we will customize tables using tools tinytable and gt. The same process can be used to customize kableExtra, flextable, huxtable, and DT tables.

tinytable

The tinytable package offers many functions to customize the appearance of tables. Below, we give a couple illustrations, but interested readers should refer to the detailed tutorial on the tinytable package website: https://vincentarelbundock.github.io/tinytable/

In this example, we use the group_tt() function to add spanning column headers, and the style_tt() function to color a few cells of the table:

library(tinytable)

modelsummary(models) |>
    group_tt(j = list(Linear = 2:4, Poisson = 5:6)) |>
    style_tt(i = 3:4, j = 2, background = "teal", color = "white", bold = TRUE)
tinytable_gk4m1jqx2n81isqk6n7v
Linear Poisson
I II III IV V
(Intercept) 8759.068 20357.309 11243.544 9.708 8.986
(1559.363) (2020.980) (1011.240) (0.003) (0.004)
Literacy -42.886 -15.358 -68.507 0.000 -0.006
(36.362) (47.127) (18.029) (0.000) (0.000)
Clergy -16.376 0.004 0.002
(12.522) (0.000) (0.000)
Num.Obs. 86 86 86 86 86
R2 0.016 0.001 0.152
R2 Adj. 0.005 -0.011 0.132
AIC 1739.1 1783.7 1616.9 242266.3 302865.8
BIC 1746.5 1791.1 1626.7 242273.6 302873.2
Log.Lik. -866.574 -888.874 -804.441 -121130.130 -151429.921
F 1.391 0.106 7.441 7905.811 4170.610
RMSE 5753.14 7456.23 2793.43 7233.22 5727.27

Now, we create a descriptive statistics table with datasummary(). That table includes an emptyr row, which we fill with density plots using the plot_tt() function from tinytable:

Density <- function(x) ""

datasummary(mpg + hp ~ Mean + SD + Density, data = mtcars) |>
    plot_tt(
        j = 4,
        fun = "density",
        data = list(mtcars$mpg, mtcars$hp),
        color = "#E69F00")
tinytable_upss6b0yuaoeej763a83
Mean SD Density
mpg 20.09 6.03
hp 146.69 68.56

HTML tables can be further customized in tinytable by specifying CSS rules. Again, detailed tutorials are available on the tinytable website. This example adds an image in the background of a table:

css <- "
.mytable {
  background-size: cover;
  background-position: center;
  background-image: url('https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/987057/82732352-b9aabf00-9cda-11ea-92a6-26750cf097d0.png');
  --bs-table-bg: transparent;
}
"

modelsummary(models) |>
    style_tt(
        bootstrap_class = "table table-borderless mytable", 
        bootstrap_css_rule = css)
tinytable_fjtiv3o9ob46zutfps5n
I II III IV V
(Intercept) 8759.068 20357.309 11243.544 9.708 8.986
(1559.363) (2020.980) (1011.240) (0.003) (0.004)
Literacy -42.886 -15.358 -68.507 0.000 -0.006
(36.362) (47.127) (18.029) (0.000) (0.000)
Clergy -16.376 0.004 0.002
(12.522) (0.000) (0.000)
Num.Obs. 86 86 86 86 86
R2 0.016 0.001 0.152
R2 Adj. 0.005 -0.011 0.132
AIC 1739.1 1783.7 1616.9 242266.3 302865.8
BIC 1746.5 1791.1 1626.7 242273.6 302873.2
Log.Lik. -866.574 -888.874 -804.441 -121130.130 -151429.921
F 1.391 0.106 7.441 7905.811 4170.610
RMSE 5753.14 7456.23 2793.43 7233.22 5727.27

gt

To illustrate how to customize tables using the gt package we will use the following functions from the gt package:

  • tab_spanner creates labels to group columns.
  • tab_footnote adds a footnote and a matching marking in a specific cell.
  • tab_style can modify the text and color of rows, columns, or cells.

To produce a “cleaner” look, we will also use modelsummary’s stars, coef_map, gof_omit, and title arguments.

Note that in order to access gt functions, we must first load the library.

library(gt)

## build table with `modelsummary` 
cm <- c( '(Intercept)' = 'Constant', 'Literacy' = 'Literacy (%)', 'Clergy' = 'Priests/capita')
cap <- 'A modelsummary table customized with gt'

tab <- modelsummary(models, 
                output = "gt",
                coef_map = cm, stars = TRUE, 
                title = cap, gof_omit = 'IC|Log|Adj') 

## customize table with `gt`

tab %>%

    # column labels
    tab_spanner(label = 'Donations', columns = 2:3) %>%
    tab_spanner(label = 'Crimes (persons)', columns = 4:5) %>%
    tab_spanner(label = 'Crimes (property)', columns = 6) %>%

    # footnote
    tab_footnote(footnote = md("A very **important** variable."),
                 locations = cells_body(rows = 3, columns = 1)) %>%

    # text and background color
    tab_style(style = cell_text(color = 'red'),
              locations = cells_body(rows = 3)) %>%
    tab_style(style = cell_fill(color = 'lightblue'),
              locations = cells_body(rows = 5))
A modelsummary table customized with gt
Donations Crimes (persons) Crimes (property)
I II III IV V
Constant 8759.068*** 20357.309*** 11243.544*** 9.708*** 8.986***
(1559.363) (2020.980) (1011.240) (0.003) (0.004)
Literacy (%)1 -42.886 -15.358 -68.507*** 0.000*** -0.006***
(36.362) (47.127) (18.029) (0.000) (0.000)
Priests/capita -16.376 0.004*** 0.002***
(12.522) (0.000) (0.000)
Num.Obs. 86 86 86 86 86
R2 0.016 0.001 0.152
F 1.391 0.106 7.441 7905.811 4170.610
RMSE 5753.14 7456.23 2793.43 7233.22 5727.27
+ p < 0.1, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
1 A very important variable.

The gt website offers many more examples. The possibilities are endless. For instance, gt allows you to embed images in your tables using the text_transform and local_image functions:

f <- function(x) web_image(url = "https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/987057/82732352-b9aabf00-9cda-11ea-92a6-26750cf097d0.png", height = 80)

tab %>% 
    text_transform(locations = cells_body(columns = 2:6, rows = 1), fn = f)
A modelsummary table customized with gt
I II III IV V
Constant
(1559.363) (2020.980) (1011.240) (0.003) (0.004)
Literacy (%) -42.886 -15.358 -68.507*** 0.000*** -0.006***
(36.362) (47.127) (18.029) (0.000) (0.000)
Priests/capita -16.376 0.004*** 0.002***
(12.522) (0.000) (0.000)
Num.Obs. 86 86 86 86 86
R2 0.016 0.001 0.152
F 1.391 0.106 7.441 7905.811 4170.610
RMSE 5753.14 7456.23 2793.43 7233.22 5727.27
+ p < 0.1, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

Themes

If you want to apply the same post-processing functions to your tables, you can use modelsummary’s theming functionality. To do so, we first create a function to post-process a table. This function must accept a table as its first argument, and include the ellipsis (...). Optionally, the theming function can also accept an hrule argument which is a vector of row positions where we insert horizontal rule, and an output_format which allows output format-specific customization. For inspiration, you may want to consult the default modelsummary themes in the themes.R file of the Github repository.

Once the theming function is created, we assign it to a global option called modelsummary_theme_kableExtra, modelsummary_theme_gt, modelsummary_theme_flextable, or modelsummary_theme_huxtable. For example, if you want to add row striping to all your gt tables:

library(gt)

## The ... ellipsis is required!
custom_theme <- function(x, ...) {
    x %>% gt::opt_row_striping(row_striping = TRUE)
}
options("modelsummary_theme_gt" = custom_theme)

mod <- lm(mpg ~ hp + drat, mtcars)
modelsummary(mod, output = "gt")
(1)
(Intercept) 10.790
(5.078)
hp -0.052
(0.009)
drat 4.698
(1.192)
Num.Obs. 32
R2 0.741
R2 Adj. 0.723
AIC 169.5
BIC 175.4
Log.Lik. -80.752
F 41.522
RMSE 3.02
url <- 'https://vincentarelbundock.github.io/Rdatasets/csv/palmerpenguins/penguins.csv'
penguins <- read.csv(url, na.strings = "")

datasummary_crosstab(island ~ sex * species, output = "gt", data = penguins)
island female male All
Adelie Chinstrap Gentoo Adelie Chinstrap Gentoo
Biscoe N 22 0 58 22 0 61 168
% row 13.1 0.0 34.5 13.1 0.0 36.3 100.0
Dream N 27 34 0 28 34 0 124
% row 21.8 27.4 0.0 22.6 27.4 0.0 100.0
Torgersen N 24 0 0 23 0 0 52
% row 46.2 0.0 0.0 44.2 0.0 0.0 100.0
All N 73 34 58 73 34 61 344
% row 21.2 9.9 16.9 21.2 9.9 17.7 100.0

Restore default theme:

options("modelsummary_theme_gt" = NULL)

Themes: Data Frame

A particularly flexible strategy is to apply a theme to the dataframe output format. To illustrate, recall that setting output="dataframe" produces a data frame with a lot of extraneous meta information. To produce a nice table, we have to process that output a bit:

mod <- lm(mpg ~ hp + drat, mtcars)

modelsummary(mod, output = "dataframe")
        part        term statistic     (1)
1  estimates (Intercept)  estimate  10.790
2  estimates (Intercept) std.error (5.078)
3  estimates          hp  estimate  -0.052
4  estimates          hp std.error (0.009)
5  estimates        drat  estimate   4.698
6  estimates        drat std.error (1.192)
7        gof    Num.Obs.                32
8        gof          R2             0.741
9        gof     R2 Adj.             0.723
10       gof         AIC             169.5
11       gof         BIC             175.4
12       gof    Log.Lik.           -80.752
13       gof           F            41.522
14       gof        RMSE              3.02

modelsummary supports the DT table-making package out of the box. But for the sake of illustration, imagine we want to create a table using the DT package with specific customization and options, in a repeatable fashion. To do this, we can create a theming function:

library(DT)

theme_df <- function(tab) {
    out <- tab
    out$term[out$statistic == "modelsummary_tmp2"] <- " "
    out$part <- out$statistic <- NULL
    colnames(out)[1] <- " "
    datatable(out, rownames = FALSE,
              options = list(pageLength = 30))
}

options("modelsummary_theme_dataframe" = theme_df)
modelsummary(mod, output = "dataframe")

Restore default theme:

options("modelsummary_theme_dataframe" = NULL)

Variable labels

Some packages like haven can assign attributes to the columns of a dataset for use as labels. Most of the functions in modelsummary can display these labels automatically. For example:

library(haven)
dat <- mtcars
dat$am <- haven::labelled(dat$am, label = "Transmission")
dat$mpg <- haven::labelled(dat$mpg, label = "Miles per Gallon")
mod <- lm(hp ~ mpg + am, dat = dat)

modelsummary(mod, coef_rename = TRUE)
tinytable_2ghsfofozafle28kc52b
(1)
(Intercept) 352.312
(27.226)
Miles per Gallon -11.200
(1.494)
Transmission 47.725
(18.048)
Num.Obs. 32
R2 0.680
R2 Adj. 0.658
AIC 331.9
BIC 337.8
Log.Lik. -161.971
F 30.766
RMSE 38.19
datasummary_skim(dat[, c("mpg", "am", "drat")])
tinytable_b9fmerwwhfc6aow40ztz
Unique Missing Pct. Mean SD Min Median Max Histogram
Miles per Gallon 25 0 20.1 6.0 10.4 19.2 33.9
Transmission 2 0 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.0
drat 22 0 3.6 0.5 2.8 3.7 4.9

Warning: Saving to file

When users supply a file name to the output argument, the table is written immediately to file. This means that users cannot post-process and customize the resulting table using functions from gt, kableExtra, huxtable, or flextable. When users specify a filename in the output argument, the modelsummary() call should be the final one in the chain.

This is OK:

modelsummary(models, output = 'table.html')

This is not OK:

library(tinytable)
modelsummary(models, output = 'table.html') |>
    group_tt(j = list(Literacy = 2:3))

To save a customized table, you should apply all the customizations you need before saving it using dedicated package-specific functions:

For example, to add color column spanners with the gt package:

library(tinytable)
modelsummary(models, output = 'tinytable') |>
    group_tt(j = list(Literacy = 2:3)) |>
    save_tt("table.html")